How Video Games Affect the Brain, Memory and Cognition


How Video Games Affect the Brain, Memory and Cognition


Video games have become an incredibly popular pastime across all demographics. However, there has been much debate on whether playing video games actively harms or benefits cognitive abilities and the brain. Research over the past two decades has worked to analyze the impacts of gaming on memory, attention, motor skills, spatial cognition, and more.

Video Game Play and Brain Structure

Numerous studies have found structural changes in the brains of frequent video gamers compared to non-gamers:

  • Increased gray matter volume and activity in regions like the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, cerebellum, and occipital lobe
  • Enhanced connectivity between different brain networks
  • Delayed cortical thinning during maturation

These physical changes correlate with enhanced performance on cognitive tests among regular gamers. Video games may literally help remodel the brain to improve functions.

Effects on Memory

Playing action video games in particular has displayed positive effects on several types of memory processes:

  • Spatial memory – Navigating 3D environments enhances hippocampal spatial mapping abilities
  • Working memory – Holding gameplay objectives and environmental variables in mind simultaneously
  • Episodic memory – Remembering complex gameplay sequences and variable outcomes

However, excessive gaming has also been linked with poorer verbal memory performance and altered neural activity during memory tasks. Finding a balance is key.

Impacts on Attention and Perception

Gaming heightens certain attentional and perceptual skills through intense sensory-motor coordination:

  • Enhanced visual attention – Detecting subtle motion and tracking moving objects
  • Improved temporal processing – Heightened sensitivity to changes over time
  • Multitasking capabilities – Managing multiple gameplay elements simultaneously

On the other hand, some research indicates that frequent gamers suffer from poorer sustained attention and impulse inhibition.

Effect on Executive Functions

Executive functions like planning, strategic thinking, and flexibility may be bolstered through complex gameplay. However, the effects likely depend heavily on game type:

  • Strategy games like Starcraft rely heavily on executive control and mental flexibility
  • First-person shooters emphasize reaction time over complex decision-making

More research is still needed on exactly how different games affect executive function development.


In moderation, video game play has the potential to enhance many cognitive abilities and even alter brain structure. However, excessive gaming, especially of certain genres, may also negatively impact some verbal, attentional, and executive functions. More research is still underway into the nuances of gaming’s effects on cognition.

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